Last year I attended a by-invitation conference in Sydney on the future of scholarly publishing. While it was interesting to be the only representative from the school sector in the room, many of the issues discussed applied equally to schools as to the universities. Not surprisingly, a lot of the debate centred around price increases, as well as the role of open access publishing. From what I can see the main difference between the higher education sector and the rest of the library community is that there is no debate about open access content outside of the higher education and research sectors. Given the budget pressure school libraries face it is surprising there is not a debate about the role libraries can play in curating authoritative and relevant open access online content for their school.
Move forward twelve months and I came across the Journal of Innovation & Knowledge. Interestingly, for the universities who complain about a certain publisher’s pricing models (and I’m not disagreeing with these complaints by the way) this title is published by Elsevier as an open access publication. So after spending the last 12 months hearing about the importance of open access publications my interest was piqued as to how the great universities and national libraries of the world catalogue a publication’s open access status, and the short answer appears to be…
They don’t! Not really.
Furthermore, when I went hunting around online to see what cataloguers were saying I was surprised to find not much at all. Now I’m reasonably good at searching the web so either I have missed something, it is not easy to find, or it doesn’t exist. While there is a great summary on “why librarians should be concerned with Open Access” on the Open Access Scholarly Information Sourcebook (OASIS) web site I couldn’t find any clear instructions, or debate, on how open access should be identified and coded in MARC. Why MARC? Because it remains the format our systems use today.
There is a very good, reasonably dense, but still accessible and detailed document outlining the 2015 NISO standard relating to ‘Access License and Indicators’ (NISO RP-22-20105). This standard focuses on RDF and XML because, as we all know, MARC is past it’s used by date, and does not have the structure to adequately and meaningful describe detailed open access status. I also discovered (for me at least) the very interesting Open Access Workflows for Academic Librarians (OAWAL) being developed by the University of Huddersfield who are quickly becoming my heroes for the great work they do. However, as the OAWAL web site says, “these pages are currently in their formative stage. The intention is to make OAWAL an openly accessible wiki/blog site for librarians working on the management of open access workflow within their given institutions”.
This all raises the following questions:
If open source publications are so important to libraries why do we seem to do such a bad job at coding them as such in our catalogues? Yes, part of the problem lies with legacy issues around MARC, but does this mean we do nothing until such times as our catalogue platforms can work with xml linked data? Furthermore, why are the large academic libraries and the national libraries missing in action on this? Shouldn’t they be taking a lead in coding open access publications in a way that enables us to use it today? At least this would help make open access publications more readily identifiable in the catalogues we currently use. It would also make open access publications more identifiable in the bibliographic infrastructure, such as Libraries Australia and WorldCat, that we rely on today.
I would have thought that it would be important to clearly code the open access status of a publication in a library catalogue as well as in Libraries Australia and WorldCat so that:
- Key types of library users in the academic and research community can clearly see what is open access, this can be important because it might have an impact on the quality of the content. With predatory publishing it may also mean the title is given an extra look over before being used. By the way, I’m not suggesting the Elsevier publication the Journal of Innovation & Knowledge is an example of predatory publishing.
- Libraries looking at or selecting record metadata on WorldCat or Libraries Australia can see that the title is an open access publication, furthermore…
- Libraries using WorldCat or Libraries Australia might want to search for all the open access publications within a certain discipline.
- Once the library has added the publication to their collection they might want to run a collection development or usage report identifying the open access titles and how they are being used. While many of the academic libraries use the inventory modules of their catalogues to manage the open access publications this seems to be a very institutionally siloed approach at a time we all need to look at doing things quicker, smarter and more collaboratively.
In regards to the Elsevier ‘Journal of Innovation & Knowledge’ metadata in WorldCat:
- The Koninklijke Bibliotheek cataloguers added this journal to their holdings but didn’t think to code the fact that it is an open access publication. Likewise,
- NLGGCO [OCLC Netherlands], who added the record to WorldCat in the first place, didn’t think to code the fact that it is an open access publication.
Mind you neither of these Dutch institutions thought to add any subject headings to the WorldCat record. Maybe they were waiting on Elsevier. I wonder what they think about a small Australian school library enhancing the record and adding this information especially when they have MORE staff as well as BIGGER budgets and more resources. Closer to home, ANU Press has made the eBook version of their publications open access, and for this they should be congratulated, but neither the National Library of Australia or the Australian National University Library have thought to code the ANU Press eBooks as open access publications in the Libraries Australia record.
So diving into deep end I have made the following adjustments to this Elsevier journal so now everyone can see in the metadata that it is indeed an open access publication. I would like to thank and acknowledge my colleagues Joy Sever from an Australian Commonwealth Government agency library, and Melissa Parent from an Australian academic library for their advice and input. As an aside, you can do a whole lot more if your professional contacts also come from outside your narrow library sector silo (just saying). My research, backed up by Joy and Melissa, suggests that the best way to code a publication’s open access status in MARC and to make the meaning explicit so there is potential to migrate this information into a future linked data system is to use the MARC 506 field.
If you want to look at what I have done to the record in question look to WorldCat record Number: 958632632. I have replicated what I have done in the following section of this blog post. Starting at the 040 field, the metadata added to WorldCat by NLGGCO is listed in black and the metadata I added is shown in red. The MARC 506 field allows for the source URL to be coded into the $u sub-field. Unfortunately, while this information is coded in WorldCat it is not visible via the WorldCat interface, (another annoyance) so I have replicated the information, but not the source URL, into a MARC 500 general notes field.
041 0 eng
222 0 Journal of Innovation & Knowledge
245 0 0 Journal of Innovation & Knowledge.
246 3 Journal of Innovation and Knowledge
260 Barcelona :$bElsevier España,$c2016-
310 Verschijnt 1x per 3 maanden
338 online bron$bcr$2rdacarrier/dut
362 0 Volume 1, issue 1 (January- April 2016)-
500 Journal of Innovation & Knowledge is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial – No Derivatives 4.0 International License.
506 1 Journal of Innovation & Knowledge is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial – No Derivatives 4.0 International License.$uhttp://www.elsevier.es/en-revista-journal-of-innovation-and-knowledge-376
520 2 The Journal of Innovation & Knowledge (JIK) is an international premier peer-reviewed open access journal (from Elsevier) with no publication charges, costs or fees for publication. Papers will contend researches focused on issues related to innovation and advancement and dissemination of basic and transitional knowledge, from a multidisciplinary focus on management, economics and business, psychology, and related disciplines in general, which aim to achieve strategic and operational improvements in organizations in today’s dynamic global business environment. JIK seeks to receive high quality manuscripts: conceptual and empirical papers, practical and educational articles, case studies of successful firms, and book reviews of the journal’s scope and objectives.
650 7 Diffusion of innovations.$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst00893549
650 7 Knowledge, Theory of.$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst00988194
650 7 Organizational change.$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01047828
650 7 Organizational effectiveness.$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01047852
856 4 $uhttp://www.journals.elsevier.com/journal-of-innovation-and-knowledge$zhttp://www.journals.elsevier.com/journal-of-innovation-and-knowledge
856 4 $uhttp://www.elsevier.com/locate/issn/2444569X$zhttp://www.elsevier.com/locate/issn/2444569X
029 0 NLGGC$b406781826
Interestingly, if you look at the linked data view of the record on WorldCat, even though I coded the access restrictions, in this case open access under a creative commons license, into the MARC 506, this information does not appear to populate into the WorldCat linked data. See following for details. This begs the question:
In a linked data ecosystem how can libraries share information about a publication’s open access status among themselves, or indeed with an institutions online learning platform, if the coded metadata is ignored and not part of the linked data output?
Hopefully OCLC will adopt the NISO RP-22-20105 standard into the WorldCat linked data output. following is the linked data output after I made the enhancements listed above.
Journal of Innovation & Knowledge. (eJournal / eMagazine, 2016) [WorldCat.org]
a schema:Periodical, schema:CreativeWork, schema:MediaObject ;
library:oclcnum “958632632” ;
library:placeOfPublication <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/3873698980#Place/barcelona> ; # Barcelona
library:placeOfPublication <http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/countries/sp> ;
schema:about <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/3873698980#Topic/knowledge_theory_of> ; # Knowledge, Theory of
schema:about <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/3873698980#Topic/diffusion_of_innovations> ; # Diffusion of innovations
schema:about <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/3873698980#Topic/organizational_effectiveness> ; # Organizational effectiveness
schema:about <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/3873698980#Topic/organizational_change> ; # Organizational change
schema:alternateName “Journal of Innovation and Knowledge” ;
schema:datePublished “2016/9999” ;
schema:datePublished “2016/” ;
schema:description “The Journal of Innovation & Knowledge (JIK) is an international premier peer-reviewed open access journal (from Elsevier) with no publication charges, costs or fees for publication. Papers will contend researches focused on issues related to innovation and advancement and dissemination of basic and transitional knowledge, from a multidisciplinary focus on management, economics and business, psychology, and related disciplines in general, which aim to achieve strategic and operational improvements in organizations in today’s dynamic global business environment. JIK seeks to receive high quality manuscripts: conceptual and empirical papers, practical and educational articles, case studies of successful firms, and book reviews of the journal’s scope and objectives.” ;
schema:exampleOfWork <http://worldcat.org/entity/work/id/3873698980> ;
schema:inLanguage “en” ;
schema:name “Journal of Innovation & Knowledge.” ;
schema:productID “958632632” ;
schema:publication <http://www.worldcat.org/title/-/oclc/958632632#PublicationEvent/barcelona_elsevier_espana_2016> ;
schema:publisher <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/3873698980#Agent/elsevier_espana> ; # Elsevier España
schema:url <http://www.journals.elsevier.com/journal-of-innovation-and-knowledge> ;
schema:url <http://www.elsevier.com/locate/issn/2444569X> ;
schema:workExample <http://worldcat.org/issn/2444-569X> ; # Journal of Innovation & Knowledge.
wdrs:describedby <http://www.worldcat.org/title/-/oclc/958632632> ;